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笔译的基本翻译技巧

作者:    来源:    发布时间:2021-01-04 11:49:30    浏览量:0

    翻译的原文和译文在表达上不能有偏差的,但是中英文的语言差异,译员需要在笔译过程中对译文做一些处理,下面翻译公司给大家分享笔译的基本翻译技巧有什么?

  There should be no deviation in the expression between the original text and the translation. However, due to the language differences between Chinese and English, the translator needs to deal with the translation in the process of translation. What are the basic translation skills of translation?

    一、增译主语

    1、 Added translation subject

    由于英文表达习惯,常常用一些抽象名词作为主语,而中文的表达习惯则需要把抽象变为具体;英文中常常会为了避免重复而多用介词,中文则不怕重复,一个词会用上好几遍;英语中的复数名词译为汉语时,常常加入这些、各种、种种等,要视具体语境情况而定。

    Because of the English expression habit, some abstract nouns are often used as subjects, while the Chinese expression habit needs to change the abstract into concrete; English often uses prepositions to avoid repetition, while Chinese is not afraid of repetition, and a word can be used several times; when the plural nouns in English are translated into Chinese, these, various, various, etc. are often added, depending on the specific context 。

    二、增译谓语

    2、 Add predicate

    英语中出现两个或多个相同谓语时,常常会省略,以使句子不那么赘余。而中文中则要译出来,使其表达更加地道;英文中的介词短语译为中文时往往要增译动词;有些英语中的名词在译为中文时要加入相应的动词,使其意义更加完整,表达更加明确。

    When two or more same predicates appear in English, they are often omitted to make the sentence less redundant. While in Chinese, it is necessary to translate it to make its expression more authentic; when translating prepositional phrases into Chinese, it is often necessary to add translation verbs; when translating some nouns into Chinese, it is necessary to add corresponding verbs to make their meaning more complete and express more clearly.

    三、时间状语

    3、 Adverbial of time

    1. 时间状语常常可以直接翻译,一般译到主句前。

    1. Adverbials of time can often be translated directly, usually before the main sentence.

    2.有的时间状语从句引导词除了表示时间以外,还会附带条件性,所以在翻译的时候要译出条件关系。

    2. Some time adverbial clause leaders not only express time, but also attach conditionality, so they should translate conditionality.

    四、原因状语

    4、 Causative adverbial

    1. 英语中的状语位置较为灵活,既可以放在主句前也可置于主句后,而中文表达常常遵循“前因后果”的顺序,所以在翻译的时候也要注意调整语序。

    1. The adverbial position in English is more flexible, which can be placed before or after the main sentence, while Chinese expression often follows the order of "cause and effect", so we should also pay attention to adjusting the word order in translation.

    2.但上述情况也不是绝对的,原因状语也可放在主句后,这样也对应了汉语中的结构“之所以……是因为”。

    2. But the above situation is not absolute. The reason adverbial can also be placed after the subject sentence, which also corresponds to the structure "why Because ".

    五、目的状语

    5、 Objective adverbial

    1. 总的来说,目的状语放在主句前翻译,把说明情况的主句放在后面。

    1. Generally speaking, the target adverbial should be translated before the main sentence and the main sentence explaining the situation should be translated after it.

    2. 目的状语也可译在主句后边,表示以免、以防、使得、生怕等等。

    2. The target adverbial can also be translated after the main sentence to indicate avoidance, avoidance, causation, fear, etc.

    六、译成汉语的主动句

    6、 Active sentences translated into Chinese

    1. 一般被动句的主语是无生命的主语,翻译时常常要将原文主语译为汉语中的主语。

    1. The subject of a general passive sentence is an inanimate subject, which is often translated into Chinese.

    2.主语宾语颠倒位置

    2. Subject object reversed position

    一般英语中当动作主体的词前加上by时或由介词短语构成时,那么在译文中by后边的动作主体词或该介词短语中的名词就要充当主语,宾语则是原文中的主语。

    In general English, when by is added before the action subject or is composed of prepositional phrases, then the action subject word or noun in the prepositional phrase after by should act as the subject in the translation, and the object is the subject in the original text.

    3.增加主语

    3. Add subject

    一些被动句在译为主动句时要增加一些主语,比如我们、人们、大家等等。

    When translating some passive sentences into active ones, we should add some subjects, such as us, people, everyone and so on.

    七、译成汉语中的无主句

    7、 Translating into Chinese sentences without subject

    汉语无主句较多,也是我们的思维方式和说话表达习惯等因素有关。很多情况下,我们和处于同一背景生长环境下的人聊天,都不需要说主语,但是对方大多数情况下,都能理解你的意思。

    There are many Chinese sentences without subject, which is also related to our thinking mode, speaking habits and other factors. In many cases, we don't need to speak the subject when chatting with people in the same background, but most of the time, the other party can understand what you mean.

    八、译成被动句

    8、 Translation into passive sentences

    并不一定是所有英文中的被动句都译为中文的主动句。当一些被动句着重在强调被动意义,这时突出的是被动的动作,那么这种情况下就要仍然译为被动句。在汉语中,要用这些语言表示被动意义,比如:被、受、遭、让、给、由、把、得到、受到、加以、得以、为……所、由……来”等等。

    It is not necessarily that all passive sentences in English are translated into active sentences in Chinese. When some passive sentences emphasize the passive meaning and the passive actions are highlighted, they should still be translated into passive sentences. In Chinese, we should use these languages to express passive meaning, such as be, receive, be, give, give, by, hold, get, receive, give, get, for By Come on, "wait.

    对于包含技术性的翻译来说,就像学习自行车一样,总要经历跌跌撞撞的时刻,最后是不知不觉地学会了,翻译也一样,大家一定要多多练习,掌握必要的解题技巧,反复琢磨;当然具体情况具体分析,翻译不可能会有一个多么固定完美的标准答案,都教授给大家整理了翻译步骤:

    For technical translation, just like learning a bicycle, you always have to experience a moment of stumbling and bumping. At last, you unconsciously learn it. Translation is also the same. You must practice a lot, master the necessary problem-solving skills, and think about it again and again. Of course, the specific situation of specific analysis, translation can't have a fixed and perfect standard answer, all of which are taught to you The translation steps are sorted out:

    1.通读全句,确定主干,划分意群。

    1. Read through the whole sentence, determine the main line and divide the meaning group.

    2.选择词义,调整语序,适当加工。

    2. Select the meaning of words, adjust the word order, and properly process them.

    在这一步骤指导下,在掌握一些翻译技巧的基础上要亲自动手动嘴翻译,切忌感觉翻译出来了就对答案,这样不会有长进的,只有把翻译不好的地方多多琢磨,想想如何在下次能够翻译的更贴切一些。

    Under the guidance of this step, on the basis of mastering some translation skills, we need to translate manually by ourselves. We must not feel that the answer will be right after the translation, so that there will be no progress. We have to think more about the bad translation and think about how to translate more appropriately next time.

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