When interpreting, the interpreter needs to accurately express the contents of the two languages in a short time. What are the problems that should be paid attention to in interpreting?
1、 Preparation in advance is the basis of good interpretation
After receiving the interpretation task, we must do some necessary preparation (the time may be long or short, depending on the specific situation), including linguistic, technical and psychological preparation. First of all, we should understand the content of translation. What's more, if you are familiar with the project, you will find it easier to translate. Sometimes interpretation is a kind of technical communication in the form of lectures.
In this case, we should understand the topic content of the lecturer and the basic information of the audience, so as to avoid panic. We should attach importance to meeting foreign guests for the first time and arranging the schedule. This kind of activity generally does not involve very deep technical content, we can regard it as a kind of preparation for formal translation. First of all, you can understand and gradually adapt to the language and intonation of foreign guests through this first meeting.
As translators know, foreigners have a variety of pronunciation and intonation. For example, not every member of an English speaking delegation is from the United States and the United States. Even so, it is not necessarily authentic British or American. There are Asian, African or European Americans among them, and their accents are quite different. This requires the interpreter not only to understand the standard foreign language, but also to quickly adapt to all kinds of strange and irregular foreign language.
Moreover, through the initial contact, we can also understand the content of the negotiation or lecture (this understanding is very important when there is not enough time for desk preparation in advance). More importantly, this kind of initial contact can eliminate the tension on the spot and make psychological preparation for the next step of translation in formal occasions. In addition, there is a better way of preparation, which is to prepare together with the speaker and agree on the outline of the speech, which is actually equivalent to making a draft first.
Some occasions can be done in this way: for example, the questions to be raised by the Chinese side during the negotiation, banquets or other more formal occasions, the opening speech and toast of the speech can be prepared in advance. The most troublesome part of the interpretation task is that the speaker has prepared the speech and read it according to it, while the interpreter has no prior knowledge of it. This is no different from doing translation work in the way of interpretation. Once encountering this kind of situation, of course, the interpreter can not avoid it. He can only rely on his usual skills and try his best to complete it.
2、 Editing is a necessary part of interpreting
The editor here does not refer to the document editor, but refers to the translator who, after listening to and understanding the speaker's words, should be able to judge what he really wants to say and what is useless and repetitive nonsense, so as to delete and adjust it. So, is this against the principle of faithfulness in translation? No. Because spoken language has its own characteristics. When a speaker is making an impromptu speech, there is usually only one central idea in his mind, but when he expresses and selects words and sentences, he often thinks of what to say. Sometimes in order to explain a central idea, the speaker will repeatedly emphasize or explain the same content in different ways. Therefore, spoken language can not be as rigorous as written language, and even some speakers are not good at words, often saying some incomplete, unintelligible words. In this case, there are both Chinese and foreigners. At this time, the translator should be good at synthesis, dare to delete those nonsense without omitting the basic content of the speech, so that the translated words are clear, complete and self-contained. Only in this way can we be truly loyal to the spiritual essence of the speaker. Otherwise, if we blindly pursue word for word translation, it will give us a sense of disorder and disloyalty. As for which words need to be translated and which words need to be deleted, it depends on the translator with comprehensive knowledge to judge. Never discount the speaker's words on the basis of editors. This is not only a question of translation level, but also a question of professional ethics in translation. Proper editing in translation aims to better convey the spiritual essence of the speaker, not to cut corners or avoid difficulties.
3、 Keeping the main points in mind is an effective way to ensure the quality of translation
To remember the main points is to remember the main points of the speaker rather than the sentence patterns and words of the original speech. Due to the characteristics of oral work, it is necessary to convey the speaker's meaning in a very short time. Therefore, the interpreter is required to forget the words and sentence patterns of the original words immediately after understanding the content of the original words and express them in another standard language. If we can't immediately forget the original words and sentences, it is easy to cause the translated language or Chinese style foreign language, or foreign flavor Chinese, which makes the listener feel uncomfortable and affects communication. The main points of note taking here can be brain notes or notes. Some translators like to take shorthand when translating, trying to write down all the content they have said, thinking that it can help memory. I think it will hinder the speed of memory and the accuracy of expression, because there is an extra procedure in the middle, which is equivalent to distraction. Of course, when several numbers or people's names appear in a row, it is difficult to translate because of the different ways of number expression in Chinese and foreign languages and the difficulty of English names, so it is necessary to use notes. Notes are necessary, but not too much.
4、 Confidence is the guarantee of good interpretation
Believe in your translation ability no matter where you are. If you don't have confidence, you will be more flustered if you encounter a few sentences that you can't understand. The more flustered you are, the worse your translation will be. When you can't understand it, you should be practical and realistic. You can't pretend to understand it without knowing it, and play it by feeling. It's not disgraceful to ask twice more. You should not think that asking more is low level and disgraceful. Therefore, if you don't ask, you will make mistakes. Sometimes a few sentences are missed in the translation. When the next paragraph is translated, it is recalled because of the context. At this time, it can be added directly without explaining to the audience. Many translators may have encountered this situation, especially when the foreign guests are excited, speak for a long time at a time, or because of the long translation time, the interpreters are prone to mental fatigue. It shows that it is easy to distract the audience's attention and affect the audience's mood, which, of course, affects the overall effect of translation.
5、 Extensive knowledge is the premise of good interpretation
Interpretation involves a wide range of work, sometimes unpredictably. This requires us to pay more attention to the accumulation of knowledge. Generally speaking, translators of scientific and technological translation attach more importance to the study of professional knowledge. However, it is not enough to only have professional knowledge and translation knowledge in scientific and technological translation. They all say that translation is a "miscellany", which is absolutely true. Translators don't need to be very precise and deep in encyclopedia knowledge, but they need to be broad and complicated.
6、 Paying attention to etiquette is the basic requirement for translators
In addition, interpreters will also encounter this situation: when they go abroad for investigation and visit, foreign politicians will receive the speech of the Chinese delegation, which is usually one-way, and it is difficult to expect that the speaker will stop according to the translation requirements, especially when talking about the places of interest, which will cause trouble and eloquence, resulting in the audience's ignorance and inability to translate. Because foreign guests don't understand the difficulties of translation and don't have the habit of speaking pause. In order to avoid this situation, the interpreter should remind the speaker in advance as much as possible. In case the speaker always forgets to pause, the interpreter should not intervene too much to ask for a pause and show uneasiness or dissatisfaction, which will be impolite and interrupt the speaker's thinking, especially for the elderly or the important people of the government. Interpretation is a hard and meticulous work, which requires not only a high level of foreign language and skilled translation skills, but also a profound knowledge of science and culture. Therefore, I hope that candidates who are willing to become interpreters will not forget to absorb knowledge in other aspects while trying to improve translation skills.