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口译中的演讲技巧介绍

作者:    来源:    发布时间:2020-03-19 15:57:09    浏览量:0

  很多人以为做翻译就只需要关注翻译方面的技能,而实际上很多时候译员都要负责协调讲者与听众之间的互动,因此还要有一定的主持功底及演说能力。这些年的从业经验告诉我,优秀的口译员也应该是个好的演讲者,好的演讲者需要懂得掌控全场,临危不乱,下面北京翻译公司为大家介绍口译中的演讲技巧。

  Many people think that to do translation, they only need to pay attention to translation skills. In fact, most of the time, translators are responsible for coordinating the interaction between the speaker and the audience, so they need to have a certain degree of ability to host and speak. These years' experience tells me that an excellent interpreter should also be a good speaker. A good speaker needs to know how to control the whole audience and keep calm in the face of danger. Now Beijing translation company will introduce the speech skills in interpretation.

  1. 熟悉讲话场所,增强演讲效果

  1. Be familiar with the speech place and enhance the speech effect

  为了获得良好的沟通效果,译员在到达工作地点后,一定要先熟悉工作环境。观察发言人所处的房间设施情况,屋顶的高低、窗帘的厚度、房间的面积等都会对音效造成影响。

  In order to get a good communication effect, the interpreter must be familiar with the working environment after arriving at the work place. Observe the speaker's room facilities, the height of the roof, the thickness of the curtains, the area of the room, etc. will affect the sound effect.

  此外,发言人需要对多少观众讲话,是在讲台上发言还是流动讲话,这些问题译员都需要考虑。对于译员本人来说,是站在讲话人身边还是退到舞台一侧,有没有辅助工具(如麦克风),是有支架的麦克风、手持无线麦克风还是便携式无线麦克风,在工作开始前的短暂时间里,应该尽可能充分地掌握情况。特别要注意调试麦克风,以免出现音质有问题或电池电量不够的尴尬场面。

  In addition, translators need to consider how many audiences a speaker needs to speak to, whether speaking on the podium or in a mobile way. For the interpreter himself, whether to stand beside the speaker or back to the side of the stage, whether there are auxiliary tools (such as microphone), whether there are microphone with bracket, handheld wireless microphone or portable wireless microphone, in the short time before work, the situation should be fully grasped as much as possible. Special attention should be paid to the debugging of microphone to avoid the embarrassing situation of sound quality problems or insufficient battery power.

  2. 综合运用演讲的几大要素

  2. Several key elements of speech

  讲话人声音的产生伴随着一系列生理过程–首先是从肺部呼出气流,气流经过喉,振动声带而形成声音;再经过咽、嘴和鼻腔,声音被放大和修饰,最后通过舌、唇、齿和颚等部位形成特定的音。译员在翻译中应注意演讲几个要素的运用,即:音量(Volume)、音调(Pitch)、节奏(Rate)、停顿(Pauses)、发音(Pronunciation)和吐词(Enunciation)。

  The production of the speaker's voice is accompanied by a series of physiological processes: first, the air is exhaled from the lungs, the air flows through the larynx and vibrates the vocal cords to form a sound; then through the pharynx, mouth and nose, the sound is amplified and modified, and finally through the tongue, lips, teeth and jaws to form a specific sound. In translation, translators should pay attention to the use of several elements of speech, namely volume, pitch, rate, pauses, pronunciation and enunciation.

  1) 音量

  1) volume

  讲话人声音的大小和强弱程度。译员切勿大声喊叫,即使是发言人声音过大,也不可受到影响而提高音量。适中的音量即使自己的翻译容易被听众接受,也不会显得信心不足或喧宾夺主。在翻译过程中调节音量是必要的。译员从开始讲话就应注意观察听众表情,特别是最前排和最后排听众的表情。前排听众露出不快的表情或者后排听众露出不解的表情,都是音量不合适的信号。

  The size and strength of the speaker's voice. The interpreter must not shout loudly, even if the speaker's voice is too loud, he must not be affected to raise the volume. A moderate volume, even if your translation is easily accepted by the audience, will not appear to be insufficient in confidence or overwhelming. It is necessary to adjust the volume in the process of translation. The interpreter should pay attention to the audience's expression from the beginning of the speech, especially the expression of the front row and the last row. The unpleasant expression of the front row audience or the puzzled expression of the back row audience are all signals of inappropriate volume.

  2) 音调

  2) pitch

  声音的高低程度。一般来说,译员在翻译中最好采用中音,因为中音显得沉稳可信,并应注意通过音调的变化让听众感受到友好、温和、诚恳和热情。作为译员,表现出强烈的情感是不合适的,不温不火的音调可以显得自己更加客观。然而,这绝不意味着译员应自始至终使用一种音调,单调不变的音调会使听众感到沉闷,极大地破坏演讲效果。

  The level of sound. Generally speaking, the translator is better to use the middle tone in the translation, because the middle tone appears calm and reliable, and it should be noted that through the change of tone, the audience can feel friendly, gentle, sincere and enthusiastic. As an interpreter, it's not appropriate to show strong emotions. A tone that's not warm or fiery can make you more objective. However, this does not mean that the interpreter should use a tone all the time. The monotonous tone will make the audience feel dull and greatly destroy the effect of the speech.

  3) 节奏

  3) rhythm

  讲话人声音传递的速度快慢。通常,中文表达速度是每分钟150~180字,英文则是120~150词。虽然译员应该考虑所翻译的内容特点和讲话人所采用的速度而确定自己翻译传达的节奏,但在平均值上下浮动幅度过大,会造成听众接受信息的额外负担。因此,译员应采用中等速度,而且在重要信息点,如数字、专门用语、人名、头衔等和讲话人特别强调的关键词上应将速度适当放慢。在翻译过程中经常调整节奏也十分重要。

  The speed of the speaker's voice transmission. Generally speaking, the speed of expression in Chinese is 150-180 words per minute, while in English it is 120-150 words. Although the translator should consider the characteristics of the translated content and the speed adopted by the speaker to determine the rhythm of his own translation and communication, the fluctuation of the average value is too large, which will cause an additional burden on the audience to accept the information. Therefore, the interpreter should adopt a medium speed and slow down the speed of important information points, such as numbers, special terms, names, titles, and key words that the speaker particularly emphasizes. It is also very important to adjust the rhythm frequently in the process of translation.

  4) 停顿

  4) pause

  信息传递过程中的短暂休息。对于译员来说,适当停顿既能够自然大方地创造时间进行思考或修补翻译中的缺陷,又能够为信息表达带来更为出色的效果。马克·吐温在谈到演讲技巧时曾说过,“合适的词语也许有效,但没有任何词语比恰到好处的停顿更有效”。译员应该注意掌握停顿的时间,过长的停顿会让听众认为是译员翻不出来,从而影响他们对译员的信任;而过短的停顿又起不到什么作用。马克·吐温认为,“对一个听众的停顿要短;两个听众,停顿稍长一点;更多听众,停顿再长一点”。

  A brief break in the transmission of information. For translators, proper pause can not only naturally and generously create time for thinking or repairing the defects in translation, but also bring more excellent results for information expression. When Mark Twain talked about speech skills, he said, "the right words may work, but no words are more effective than the right pause.". The interpreter should pay attention to the pause time. If the pause is too long, the audience will think that the interpreter can't turn it out, which will affect their trust in the interpreter. However, if the pause is too short, it won't work. According to Mark Twain, "the pause for one audience is shorter; for two, the pause is longer; for more, the pause is longer.".

  5) 发音

  5) pronunciation

  讲话人所用语言的语音、语调和节拍是否正确。好的译员,首先应在中英双语口头表达上不存在任何障碍,发音起码应该符合所使用语言的规范和标准,避免地方口音的影响。这是译员的基本素质之一,此处不再详述。

  Whether the pronunciation, intonation and rhythm of the language used by the speaker are correct. A good translator should, first of all, have no obstacles in the oral expression of Chinese and English. The pronunciation should at least conform to the norms and standards of the language used to avoid the influence of local accent. This is one of the basic qualities of an interpreter, which will not be detailed here.

  6) 吐词

  6) vomit words

  讲话人能否清晰完整地说出词句。吐词清楚,对于有效传达信息至关重要。放慢讲话速度,是加强吐词的有效方法。同时,由于正式场合的发言不同于对话交谈,它往往要求讲话人将字词发得更加相对完整,字与字(词与词)之间的连读、弱读、吞音等则需要适当减少,更要避免在表达中加入带有个人习惯的不必要表达,如“嗯……”、“这个……”、“就是说……”、“Well…”、“Eh…”、“Yes…”、“OK…”等。

  Can the speaker speak words clearly and completely. Enunciation is very important to convey information effectively. Slowing down speech speed is an effective way to strengthen speech. At the same time, because the speech on formal occasions is different from dialogue, it often requires the speaker to pronounce the words more completely. The linking, weak reading and swallowing between words (words and words) need to be reduced appropriately, and unnecessary expressions with personal habits, such as "Hmmm..." should be avoided in the expression , "this..." "That is to say..." 、“Well…” 、“Eh…” 、“Yes…” 、“OK…” And so on.

  3. 保持良好大方的仪态

  3. Keep a good and generous manner

  除了言语表达以外,译员的身体语言同样十分重要。在翻译过程中,译员应考虑

  Besides speech expression, the translator's body language is also very important. In the process of translation, translators should consider

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