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五一出现一定要警惕蜱虫

作者:北京翻译公司    来源:北京翻译公司    发布时间:2019-04-29 10:46:54    浏览量:0

  北京翻译公司译:五一”小长假马上就要到了,天气转暖,温度适宜,不少人选择外出踏青游玩,不过记者在这里要提醒大家,外出时一定要警惕蜱虫,被叮咬后有可能会致命!

  May Day holiday is coming soon. The weather is getting warmer and the temperature is suitable. Many people choose to go out for a trip to Qingdao. But the reporter here reminds us that when we go out, we must be vigilant against ticks, which may be fatal after being bitten by ticks! __________.

  近日,武汉一名两岁半男孩的眼皮被蜱虫叮咬,蜱虫的口器已经深深扎入孩子的眼睑缘根部,幸亏就医及时已经安全出院。而2018年5月底6月初,江苏盱眙宋先生的小舅子和岳母先后被蜱虫咬伤,因在当地医院迟迟未能确诊,最终因多器官衰竭而病重不治身亡。

  Recently, a two-and-a-half-year-old boy in Wuhan was bitten by ticks. The tick's mouthparts had penetrated deeply into the root of his eyelid margin. Fortunately, he was discharged safely in time for medical treatment. At the end of May and the beginning of June, 2018, Mr. Xuyisong's brother-in-law and mother-in-law were bitten by ticks successively, and finally died of multiple organ failure due to delayed diagnosis in local hospitals.

  被蜱虫叮咬后有哪些症状?如何应急处理?怎样避免被蜱虫叮咬?就这些问题记者采访了石家庄市第一医院皮肤科主任曹海育和河北省疾病控制中心有害生物防治所所长黄钢。

  What are the symptoms after being bitten by ticks? How to deal with emergencies? How to avoid being bitten by ticks? On these issues, the reporter interviewed Cao Haiyu, director of Dermatology Department of Shijiazhuang First Hospital, and Huang Gang, director of Pest Control Institute of Hebei Disease Control Center.

  蜱在宿主的寄生部位常有一定的选择性,一般在皮肤较薄,不易被搔动的部位。例如动物或人的颈部、耳后、腋窝、大腿内侧、阴部和腹股沟等处。

  Ticks often have a certain selectivity in the parasitic part of the host, generally in the thinner skin, not easily scratched parts. For example, animal or human neck, behind ear, axilla, inner thigh, pudenda and groin.

  据曹海育介绍,被蜱咬伤后的临床表现有三种:其一是皮疹,表现为水肿性丘疹或小结节,红肿、水疱或淤斑,中央有虫咬的痕迹;有的患者可能会感觉到瘙痒或疼痛;还有一些患者会被蜱唾液中的神经毒素麻痹,表现为急性上行性麻痹,可因呼吸衰竭致死。其二是蜱咬热,多为持续性高热,可高达40℃以上,伴随着全身不适、乏力、头痛、肌肉酸痛,以及恶心、呕吐、厌食、腹泻等,部分患者还有咳嗽、咽痛的症状。其三,重症患者可有间质性肺炎、肺水肿、急性呼吸窘迫综合征以及继发细菌、病毒及真菌等感染。少数病人可因严重的血小板减少及凝血功能异常,出现皮肤、肺、消化道等出血表现,如不及时救治,可因呼吸衰竭、急性肾衰等多脏器功能衰竭以及弥漫性血管内凝血死亡。老年患者、免疫缺陷患者及进行激素治疗者感染本病后病情较危重。

  According to Cao Haiyu, there are three kinds of clinical manifestations after being bitten by ticks: one is skin rash, which is characterized by edematous papules or nodules, redness, blisters or ecchymosis, and there are signs of insect bites in the center; some patients may feel itching or pain; and some patients may be paralyzed by neurotoxins in tick saliva, which is characterized by acute ascending paralysis and may die from respiratory failure. The second is tick bite fever, mostly persistent high fever, up to 40 degrees Celsius, accompanied by general discomfort, fatigue, headache, muscle soreness, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea and other symptoms, some patients also have cough, sore throat. Thirdly, severe patients may have interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome and secondary bacterial, viral and fungal infections. A few patients may suffer from severe thrombocytopenia and abnormal coagulation function, such as skin, lung and digestive tract bleeding. If not treated in time, they may die from respiratory failure, acute renal failure and other organ failure, as well as diffuse intravascular coagulation. Senile patients, immunodeficiency patients and hormone therapy patients infected with the disease after the condition is more critical.

  “一旦发现被蜱虫叮咬,切不可捏、拽、用火或者其他东西刺激它,因为这样做一来可能让蜱的口器折断在皮肤里,二来会刺激蜱分泌更多携带病原体的唾液,增加感染的可能性。”曹海育说,“你要做的是找一把尖头镊子,尽可能靠近皮肤夹住它的口器,然后将它拔出来,不要左右摇动,以免口器断裂。拔出蜱后,用酒精或者肥皂水清洗伤口和手。如果可能,拔下来的蜱不要扔掉,可以把它放进一个密封的塑料袋或者瓶子冻进冰箱。这样一旦日后不幸出现了蜱传病的症状,它会帮助医生更容易找到发病的原因。”

  "Once a tick bite is found, it must not be pinched, tugged, fired or other things to stimulate it, because doing so may break the tick's mouthparts in the skin, and stimulate ticks to secrete more saliva carrying pathogens, increasing the possibility of infection." Cao Haiyu said, "What you have to do is find a sharp tweezers, as close as possible to the skin to clamp its mouthpiece, and then pull it out, do not shake left and right, so as not to break the mouthpiece. After pulling out the ticks, wash the wounds and hands with alcohol or soapy water. If possible, don't throw the pulled tick away. Put it in a sealed plastic bag or bottle and freeze it in the refrigerator. If tick-borne symptoms unfortunately occur in the future, it will help doctors find the cause of the disease more easily.

  黄钢从预防角度提醒广大市民,应该避免在草丛和林区等地久留,外出时可喷涂国家农业部认可的驱避剂,做好个人防护,戴帽子、穿长裤长衣、把裤腿扎进袜子或者靴筒里。当从可能有蜱出没的地方回家后,先检查一下宠物身上是否有蜱,因为它们比人更可能遭到蜱的叮咬。洗澡时要特别注意自己的头皮、耳后、颈部、腋窝、腘部、手腕、腹股沟这些有皮肤褶皱的地方。因为蜱的唾液里有一些成分可以让你感觉不到疼痛。研究发现,蜱携带的那些有害微生物大多是在蜱叮咬在人身上超过24小时后传播给人的,如果在24小时内及时去除身上的蜱,可以极大降低感染蜱传病的机会。

  Huanggang reminds the general public from a preventive point of view that they should avoid staying in grasses and forest areas for a long time. When they go out, they can spray repellents approved by the State Ministry of Agriculture, do personal protection, wear hats, trousers and long clothes, and put trousers legs into socks or boots. When returning home from places where ticks may be present, check pets for ticks first, because they are more likely to be bitten by ticks than humans. When bathing, you should pay special attention to your scalp, behind ears, neck, armpit, popliteal, wrist, groin, where there are skin folds. Because ticks have ingredients in their saliva that make you feel no pain. Studies have found that most of the harmful microorganisms carried by ticks are transmitted to humans after tick bites for more than 24 hours. If ticks are removed within 24 hours, the chance of tick-borne diseases can be greatly reduced.
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