May Day holiday is coming soon. The weather is getting warmer and the temperature is suitable. Many people choose to go out for a trip to Qingdao. But the reporter here reminds us that when we go out, we must be vigilant against ticks, which may be fatal after being bitten by ticks! __________.
Recently, a two-and-a-half-year-old boy in Wuhan was bitten by ticks. The tick's mouthparts had penetrated deeply into the root of his eyelid margin. Fortunately, he was discharged safely in time for medical treatment. At the end of May and the beginning of June, 2018, Mr. Xuyisong's brother-in-law and mother-in-law were bitten by ticks successively, and finally died of multiple organ failure due to delayed diagnosis in local hospitals.
What are the symptoms after being bitten by ticks? How to deal with emergencies? How to avoid being bitten by ticks? On these issues, the reporter interviewed Cao Haiyu, director of Dermatology Department of Shijiazhuang First Hospital, and Huang Gang, director of Pest Control Institute of Hebei Disease Control Center.
Ticks often have a certain selectivity in the parasitic part of the host, generally in the thinner skin, not easily scratched parts. For example, animal or human neck, behind ear, axilla, inner thigh, pudenda and groin.
According to Cao Haiyu, there are three kinds of clinical manifestations after being bitten by ticks: one is skin rash, which is characterized by edematous papules or nodules, redness, blisters or ecchymosis, and there are signs of insect bites in the center; some patients may feel itching or pain; and some patients may be paralyzed by neurotoxins in tick saliva, which is characterized by acute ascending paralysis and may die from respiratory failure. The second is tick bite fever, mostly persistent high fever, up to 40 degrees Celsius, accompanied by general discomfort, fatigue, headache, muscle soreness, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea and other symptoms, some patients also have cough, sore throat. Thirdly, severe patients may have interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome and secondary bacterial, viral and fungal infections. A few patients may suffer from severe thrombocytopenia and abnormal coagulation function, such as skin, lung and digestive tract bleeding. If not treated in time, they may die from respiratory failure, acute renal failure and other organ failure, as well as diffuse intravascular coagulation. Senile patients, immunodeficiency patients and hormone therapy patients infected with the disease after the condition is more critical.
"Once a tick bite is found, it must not be pinched, tugged, fired or other things to stimulate it, because doing so may break the tick's mouthparts in the skin, and stimulate ticks to secrete more saliva carrying pathogens, increasing the possibility of infection." Cao Haiyu said, "What you have to do is find a sharp tweezers, as close as possible to the skin to clamp its mouthpiece, and then pull it out, do not shake left and right, so as not to break the mouthpiece. After pulling out the ticks, wash the wounds and hands with alcohol or soapy water. If possible, don't throw the pulled tick away. Put it in a sealed plastic bag or bottle and freeze it in the refrigerator. If tick-borne symptoms unfortunately occur in the future, it will help doctors find the cause of the disease more easily.
Huanggang reminds the general public from a preventive point of view that they should avoid staying in grasses and forest areas for a long time. When they go out, they can spray repellents approved by the State Ministry of Agriculture, do personal protection, wear hats, trousers and long clothes, and put trousers legs into socks or boots. When returning home from places where ticks may be present, check pets for ticks first, because they are more likely to be bitten by ticks than humans. When bathing, you should pay special attention to your scalp, behind ears, neck, armpit, popliteal, wrist, groin, where there are skin folds. Because ticks have ingredients in their saliva that make you feel no pain. Studies have found that most of the harmful microorganisms carried by ticks are transmitted to humans after tick bites for more than 24 hours. If ticks are removed within 24 hours, the chance of tick-borne diseases can be greatly reduced.