Oil has always been called black gold. It plays an important role in the economic and social development of a country. With the globalization of petroleum industry, petroleum English is becoming more and more important. What are the characteristics and translation strategies of Petroleum English? Now let's talk about it by the editor of Beijing Translation Company.
1. Extensive use of abstract nouns
Like other sciences, Petroleum English often needs to express accurately, concisely and logically precisely through the logic and conceptual language of abstract thinking. These nouns are formed by adding suffixes such as - tance, - ment, - ence, - ure, - xion, - tion, - sion on the basis of verbs, or by adding suffixes such as - ability on the basis of adjectives. Abstract nouns can increase the seriousness and solemnity of the article, which is more suitable for expressing complex and elaborate concepts. For example, the vocabulary expressing the basic characteristics of oil and gas reservoirs is very frequently used in petroleum English, such as porosity, viscosity, drillability, mobility, permeability, saturation, compressibility, productivity and so on.
2. The Interdisciplinary Nature of Petroleum English
与石油相关的学科涉及石油炼制，石油化工，油气地质，勘探、测井、钻井设备，油气田开发及开采，油田化学，海洋石油技术，石油经济，计算机应用等专业领域。因此，石油英语是跨化工、地质、机械、物理、数学、计算机等多领域的综合性学科，其术语也是包罗万象。常用词汇中，如属于地质学词汇的limestone reef（石灰岩礁），sedimentary rock（沉积岩）等；属于机械类词汇的slant hole（斜井），overall drilling speed（总钻进速度），centrifugal pump（离心泵）等。
The disciplines related to petroleum involve petroleum refining, petrochemical industry, petroleum geology, exploration, logging, drilling equipment, oil and gas field development and exploitation, oil field chemistry, offshore petroleum technology, petroleum economy, computer application and other professional fields. Therefore, Petroleum English is a comprehensive subject which spans many fields, such as chemical engineering, geology, machinery, physics, mathematics, computer and so on. Its terminology is also all-encompassing. Commonly used vocabulary, such as limestone reef (limestone reef), sedimentary rock (sedimentary rock), slant hole (inclined well), overall drilling speed (total drilling speed), centrifugal pump (centrifugal pump) and so on.
3. Simplicity of Petroleum English
Abbreviations such as OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), SPE (Association of Petroleum Engineers), OIP (Underground Crude Oil Reserve), FVF (Formation Volume Factor), LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) are frequently used in Petroleum English. These are abbreviations made up of the first letters of each word. In Petroleum English, there is another form of abbreviation, extracting part of the word, which can be called abbreviation. For example: DPG = diphenylguanidine (diphenylguanidine), ABS = absorption (absorption), PR = pressure (pressure) and so on. Abbreviations are frequently used in petroleum English. They are often abbreviations for the names of important organizations, units, common equipment, etc. in order to improve the efficiency of information exchange.
4. Translation Strategies of Petroleum English
1. literal translation
直译的最大优点就在于能够完整地传表达原文意义，重现原文的风格。直译是应用英语翻译中的主要方法，同样也适用于钻井英语术语的翻译。如directional drilling译为“定向钻井”，drilling techniques译为“钻井工艺”，production casing为“生产套管”，core drilling为“取芯钻井 ”，intermediate casing译为“技术套管”等等。直接翻译钻井英语术语的本义并不难，但要注意那些来自通用英语或其他专业术语的石油钻井的术语，不要将其与通用英语词语或其他专业术语混为一谈，从而导致错误的产生。对于首字母缩略词，则可以直接用字母缩写来表 示其汉语意思，这样既简单又明了，而且容易记。如OD（outside diameter）外径，TD（total depth）总井深，MD（measured depth）斜深，ID（inside diameter）内径，OWDD （old well drilling deeper）老井加深钻井，ESP（emergency response plan）应急响应预案，FVF（formation volume factor）地层体积系数，MWD（measurement while drilling）随钻测井等。这些专业术语在石油钻井中使频繁，并且这些缩略词广为熟识，所以在翻译时可以直接用。
The greatest advantage of literal translation is that it can fully convey the meaning of the original text and reproduce the style of the original text. Literal translation is the main method in the application of English translation, and it is also applicable to the translation of drilling English terminology. For example, directional drilling is translated as directional drilling, drilling techniques is translated as drilling technology, production casting is translated as production casing, core drilling is translated as coring drilling, intermediate casting is translated as technical casing and so on. It is not difficult to translate the original meaning of drilling English terms directly, but we should pay attention to those oil drilling terms from general English or other professional terms, and do not confuse them with general English terms or other professional terms, which will lead to errors. For acronyms, they can be used to express their Chinese meanings directly, which is simple, clear and easy to remember. For example, OD (external diameter), total depth of TD (total depth), MD (measured depth), ID (internal diameter), OWDD (old well drilling deep) old well deepening drilling, ESP (emergency response plan), formation volume factor of FVF (formation volume factor), MWD (while drilling) logging, etc. These technical terms are frequently used in oil drilling, and these abbreviations are well known, so they can be used directly in translation.
2. free translation
Although literal translation is simple, it has some limitations. Sometimes literal translation may make the translation verbose, obscure and difficult to understand, and even fail to convey the meaning of the source language correctly. If the translator does not consider the specific situation of the original text, but only blindly carries out literal translation, it will inevitably lead to misunderstandings, resulting in mistranslation and mistranslation. Thus, free translation is suitable for dealing with terminology with more complex forms of word formation. For example, the following terms need to be translated freely: open-hole (borehole without casing); swivel (tap); ledges (shoulder in wellbore). When translating these common words in general English into oil drilling English terms, we should base on the meaning of general English and combine the actual situation of oil drilling terms to translate them into corresponding words. Only in this way can the reader really understand the meaning of terms. It should also be emphasized that when freely translating oil drilling English terminology, we must carefully distinguish the meanings of various synthetic words and abbreviations, which can not be taken for granted. For example, down cast = down + cast. In daily life, the word means ________________ Therefore, in the translation of petroleum English terminology, we must grasp the choice of word meaning. In addition, the translation of petroleum English terms should not only conform to Chinese habits, but also conform to the norms of scientific and technological vocabulary.
These are the characteristics and translation strategies of Petroleum English. I hope they will be helpful to you. To learn more about translation, you can continue to pay attention to the website of Beijing Translation Company.