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合同翻译的注意事项有哪些?

作者:北京翻译公司    来源:北京翻译公司    发布时间:2019-01-08 11:13:53    浏览量:0

  合同本身就是一种很严谨的文体,特别是对于英文合同,更是需要考虑很多细节。那么在进行合同翻译的时候有什么注意事项呢?接下来北京翻译公司为大家详细的介绍一下。

  The contract itself is a very rigorous style, especially for English contracts, it needs to consider many details. So what should we pay attention to when translating contracts? Next, Beijing Translation Company will give you a detailed introduction.

  一、酌情使用公文语惯用副词

  I. Use of Common Adverbs in Official Language as appropriate

  商务合同属于法律性公文,所以英译时,有些词语要用公文语词语、特别是酌情使用英语惯用的一套公文语副词,就会起到使译文结构严谨、逻辑严密、言简意赅的作用。但是从一些合同的英文译本中发现,这种公文语惯用副词通常被普通词语所代替,从而影响到译文的质量。

  Business contracts belong to legal documents, so when translating into English, some words should be used in official documents, especially a set of official adverbs commonly used in English, which will play a role in making the translation structure precise, logical and concise. However, from the English versions of some contracts, it is found that the common adverbs in official documents are usually replaced by common words, thus affecting the quality of the translation.

  实际上,这种公文语惯用副词为数并不多,而已构词简单易记。常用的这类副词是由here、there、where等副词分别加上after、by、in、of、on、to、under、upon、with等副词,构成一体化形式的公文语副词。例如:

  In fact, there are not many adverbs in this kind of official language, but the word-formation is simple and easy to remember. The commonly used adverbs are after, by, in, of, on, under, upon, with and so on, which form an integrated form of adverbs in official language. For example:

  从此以后、今后:hereafter;此后、以后:thereafter;在其上:thereon、thereupon;在其下:thereunder;对于这个:hereto;对于那个:whereto;在上文: herein above、herein before;在下文:herein after、herein below;在上文中、在上一部分中: therein before;在下文中、在下一部分中:thereinafter.

  Hereafter, hereafter; hereafter; thereafter; thereon; thereupon; hereunder; hereto; hereto; herein before; herein after; herein after; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein before; herein and in before; herein, in and in the next part: therein fter.

  现用两个实例,说明在英译合同中如何酌情使用上述副词。

  Two examples are given to illustrate how to use the above adverbs in English translation contracts.

  例1:本合同自买方和建造方签署之日生效。This Contract shall come into force from the date of execution hereof by the Buyer and the Builder.

  Example 1: This contract shall enter into force on the date of signature by the buyer and the builder. This Contract shall come into force from the date of execution here of the Buyer and the Builder.

  例2:下述签署人同意在中国制造新产品,其品牌以此为合适。

  Example 2: The undersigned agrees to manufacture new products in China, and their brands are appropriate.

  The undersigned hereby agrees that the new products whereto this trade name is more appropriate are made in China.

  The undersigned here by agrees that the new products where to this trade name is more appropriate are made in China.

  二、谨慎选用极易混淆的词语

  2. Choose carefully words that are easily confused

  英译商务合同时,常常由于选词不当而致词不达意或者意思模棱两可,有时甚至表达的是完全不同的含义。因此了解与掌握极易混淆的词语的区别是极为重要的,是提高英译质量的关键因素之一,现把常用且易混淆的七对词语,用典型实例论述如下。

  When translating business contracts into English, it is often due to improper choice of words that the speech is not satisfactory or ambiguous, sometimes even expressing completely different meanings. Therefore, it is very important to understand and master the differences between confusing words and expressions, which is one of the key factors to improve the quality of English translation. This paper discusses seven pairs of commonly used and confusing words with typical examples as follows.

  2.1 shipping advice 与 shipping instructions

  2.1 shipping advice and shipping instructions

  shipping advice 是“装运通知”,是由出口商(卖主)发给进口商(买主)的。然而 shipping instructions则是“装运须知”,是进口商(买主)发给出口商(卖主)的。另外要注意区分 vendor(卖主)与 vendee(买主),consignor(发货人)与consignee(收货人)。上述这三对词语在英译时、极易发生笔误。

  Shipping advice is a "shipping notice" issued by the exporter (seller) to the importer (buyer). However, shipping instructions are "shipping instructions", which are sent by the importer (buyer) to the exporter (seller). In addition, attention should be paid to distinguishing vendor from vendee, consignor from consignee. These three pairs of words are prone to errors in English translation.

  2.2 abide by 与 comply with

  2.2 abide by and comply with

  abide by 与 comply with 都有“遵守”的意思.但是当主语是“人”时,英译“遵守”须用 abide by。当主语是非人称时,则用comply with 英译“遵守”。

  Abide by and comply with with both have the meaning of "abide by". But when the subject is "person", abide by should be used in English translation. When the subject is impersonal, comply with it.

  例 3:双方都应遵守/双方的一切活动都应遵守合同规定。

  Example 3: Both parties shall abide by/all activities of both parties shall abide by the provisions of the contract.

  Both parties Shall abide by/All the activities of both parties shall comply with the contractual stipulations.

  Both parties Shall abide by/All the activities of both parties shall comply with the contractual stipulations.

  2.3 change A to B 与 change A into B

  2.3 ChangeA to B and ChangeA into B

  英译“把 A 改为 B”用“change A to B”,英译“把 A 折合成/兑换成 B”用“change A into B”,两者不可混淆。

  There is no confusion between the English translation of "change A to B" and the English translation of "convert A into B" and "change A into B".

  例 4:交货期改为 8 月并将美元折合成人民币。

  Example 4: The delivery date is changed to August and the US dollar is converted into RMB.

  Both parties agree that change the time of shipment to August and change US dollar into Renminbi.

  Both parties agree that change the time of shipment to August and change US dollar into Renminbi.

  2.4 ex 与 per

  2.4 ex and per

  源自拉丁语的介词 ex 与 per 有各自不同的含义。英译由某轮船“运来”的货物时用 ex,由某轮船“运走”的货物用 Per,而由某轮船“承运”用 by。

  The prepositions ex and per derived from Latin have different meanings. The goods "brought" by a ship are transported by ex, the goods "transported" by a ship are transported by Per, and the goods "transported" by a ship are transported by by Per.

  例 5:由“维多利亚”轮运走/运来/承运的最后一批货将于 10 月 1 日抵达伦敦。

  Example 5: The last consignment to be transported/transported/shipped by the "Victoria" will arrive in London on October 1.

  The last batch per/ex/by S.S. Victoria will arrive at London on October(S.S. = Steamship)

  The last batch per/ex/by S.S. Victoria will arrive at London on October (S.S. = Steamship)

  2.5 in 与 after

  2.5 in and after

  当英译“多少天之后”的时间时,往往是指“多少天之后”的确切的一天,所以必须用介词 in,而不能用 after,因为介词 after指的是“多少天之后”的不确切的任何一天。

  When translating "how many days after" into English, it often refers to the exact day of "how many days after", so the preposition in must be used instead of after, because the preposition after refers to the inaccurate day of "how many days after".

  例 6:该货于 11 月 10 日由“东风”轮运出,41 天后抵达鹿特丹港。

  Example 6: The goods were shipped by S. S. Dongfeng on November 10 and arrived at Rotterdam Port 41 days later.

  The good shall be shipped per M.V. Dong Feng on November 10 and are due to arrive at Rotterdam in 140 days. (M.V.= motor vessel)

  The good shall be shipped per M.V. Dong Feng on November 10 and are due to arrive at Rotterdam in 140 days. (M.V. = motor vessel)

  2.6 on/upon 与 after

  2.6 on/up and after

  当英译“……到后,就……”时,用介词 on/upon,而不用 after,因为 after 表示“之后”的时间不明确。

  When translated into English, "... After that, it will be..." When using the preposition on/on, instead of after, because the time of "after" is not clear.

  例 7:发票货值须货到付给。

  Example 7: The invoice value must be paid on delivery.

  The invoice value is to be paid on/upon arrival of the goods.

  The invoice value is to be paid on/upon arrival of the goods.

  2.7 by 与 before

  2.7 by and before

  当英译终止时间时,比如“在某月某日之前”,如果包括所写日期时,就用介词 by;如果不包括所写日期,即指到所写日期的前一天为止,就要用介词before。

  When the English translation termination time, such as "before a certain date of a month", if it includes the date written, use the preposition by; if it does not include the date written, that is, until the day before the date written, use the preposition before.

  例 8:卖方须在 6 月 15 日前将货交给买方。

  Example 8: The seller must deliver the goods to the buyer before June 15.

  The vendor shall deliver the goods to the vendee by June 15.(or: before June 16,说明含 6 月 15 日在内。如果不含 6 月 15

  The vendor shall deliver the goods to the vendee by June 15. If June 15 is not included

  就译为 by June 14 或者 before June 15。)

  三、慎重处理合同的关键细目

  实践证明,英译合同中容易出现差错的地方,一般来说,不是大的陈述性条款。而恰恰是一些关键的细目。比如:金钱、时间、数量等。为了避免出差错,在英译合同时,常常使用一些有限定作用的结构来界定细目所指定的确切范围。

  3.1 限定责任

  众所周知,合同中要明确规定双方的责任。为英译出双方责任的权限与范围,常常使用连词和介词的固定结构。现把最常用的此类结构举例说明如下。

  3.1.1 and/or

  常用and/or英译合同中“甲和乙+甲或乙”的内容,这样就可避免漏译其中的一部分。

  例9:如果上述货物对船舶和(或)船上其它货物造成任何损害,托运人应负全责

  The shipper shall be liable for all damage caused by such goods to the ship and/or cargo on board.

  3.1.2 by and between

  常用by and between强调合同是由“双方”签订的,因此双方必须严格履行合同所赋予的责任。

  例10:买卖双方同意按下述条款购买出售下列商品并签订本合同。

  This Contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller, whereby the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller agrees to sell the under mentioned commodity subject to the terms and conditions stipulated below.

  3.2 限定时间

  英译与时间有关的文字,都应非常严格慎重地处理,因为合同对时间的要求是准确无误。所以英译起止时间时,常用以下结构来限定准确的时间。

  3.2.1 双介词

  用双介词英译含当天日期在内的起止时间。

  例11;自9月2O日起,甲方已无权接受任何定单或收据。

  Party A shall be unauthorized to accept any order sort to collect any account on and after September 20.

  例12:我公司的条件是,3个月内,即不得晚于5月1日,支付现金。

  Our terms are cash within three months, i.e. on or before May 1.

  3.2.2not(no) later than

  用“not(no) later than+日期”英译“不迟于某月某日”。

  例13:本合同签字之日一个月内,即不迟于12月15日,你方须将货物装船。

  Party B shall ship the goods within one month of the date of signing this Contract, i.e. not later than December 15.

  3.2.3 include的相应形式

  常用include的相应形式:inclusive、including和included,来限定含当日在内的时间。

  例14:本证在北京议付,有效期至1月1日。

  This credit expires till January 1(inclusive) for negotiation in Beijing. (or: This credit expires till and including January1 for negotiation in Beijing.)如果不包括1月1日在内,英译为till and not including January 1。

  3.3 限定金额

  为避免金额数量的差漏、伪造或涂改,英译时常用以下措施严格把关。

  3.3.1.大写文字重复金额

  英译金额须在小写之后,在括号内用大写文字重复该金额,即使原文合同中没有大写,英译时也有必要加上大写。在大写文字前加上“SAY”,意为“大写”;在最后加上“ONLY”。意思为“整”。必须注意:小写与大写的金额数量要一致。

  例16:聘方须每月付给受聘方美元500元整。

  Party A shall pay Party B a monthly salary of US$500(SAY FIVE HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY).

  3.3.2.正确使用货币符号

  英译金额必须注意区分和正确使用各种不同的货币名称符号。“$”既可代表“美元”,又可代表其他某些地方的货币;而“£”不仅代表“英镑”,又可代表其他某些地方的货币。

  必须注意:当金额用数字书写时,金额数字必须紧靠货币符号,例如:Can$891,568 不能写成:Can$891,568。另外,翻译的还要特别注意金额中是小数点(.)还是分节号(,),因为这两个符号极易引起笔误,稍有疏忽,其后果是不堪设想的。

  以上就是北京翻译公司为大家分享的关于合同翻译的注意事项的内容,希望对大家有所帮助。如果大家有更多的关于北京翻译公司的内容需要进行了解的话,请及时的与我们进行联系。

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